What are Nickel Alloys Pipes

What are Nickel Alloys Pipes?
Nickel alloy pipes are pipes made of nickel alloy with a hollow cross section and used as a material for transporting fluids, such as nickel alloy pipes for transporting petroleum, natural gas, coal gas, water and certain solid materials. Compared with solid steel such as round steel, nickel alloy steel pipe has light weight when the bending and torsional strength are the same. Nickel alloy steel pipe is an economical section steel, which is widely used in the manufacture of structural parts and mechanical parts, such as oil drill pipes. Automobile drive shafts, bicycle frames, and steel scaffolding used in construction. The use of nickel alloy steel pipe to manufacture ring parts can improve the material utilization rate, simplify the manufacturing process, save materials and processing man-hours, such as rolling bearing rings, jack sleeves, etc., and have been widely used in the manufacture of steel pipes. Nickel alloy steel pipes are also indispensable materials for various conventional weapons, and barrels, barrels, etc. are all made of steel pipes. Nickel alloy steel pipes can be divided into round pipes and shaped pipes according to the shape of the cross-sectional area. Since the area of the circle is the largest under the condition of equal circumference, more fluid can be transported by the circular pipe. In addition, the circular section is subjected to a relatively uniform force when subjected to internal or external radial pressure, and therefore, most of the steel pipes are round pipes.
Classification of nickel alloys
1 Nickel-based high temperature nickel alloy. The main nickel alloy elements are chromium, tungsten, molybdenum, cobalt, aluminum, titanium, boron, zirconium and the like. Among them, chromium acts as an antioxidant and anti-corrosion, and other elements act as strengthening. It has high strength and resistance to oxidation and gas corrosion at high temperatures of 850-1300 °C. It is the most widely used and high-temperature nickel alloy in high-temperature nickel alloys. Used in the manufacture of high temperature components for aerospace engine blades and rocket engines, nuclear reactors, and energy conversion equipment.
2 nickel-based corrosion-resistant nickel alloy. The main nickel alloy elements are copper, chromium and molybdenum. Has a good overall performance, resistant to a variety of acid corrosion and stress corrosion. The earliest application is nickel-nickel-nickel alloy, also known as Monel nickel alloy; in addition, nickel-chromium-nickel alloy, nickel-molybdenum-nickel alloy, nickel-chromium-molybdenum-nickel alloy, and the like. Used in the manufacture of various corrosion resistant parts.
3 nickel-based wear-resistant nickel alloy. The main nickel alloy elements are chromium, molybdenum, tungsten, and also a small amount of antimony, bismuth and indium. In addition to its wear resistance, it is also resistant to oxidation, corrosion and welding. It can be used to manufacture wear-resistant parts or as a coating material, which can be coated on the surface of other base materials by surfacing and spraying processes.
4 nickel-based precision nickel alloy. Including nickel-based soft magnetic nickel alloy, nickel-based precision nickel alloy and nickel-based electrothermal nickel alloy. The most commonly used soft magnetic nickel alloy is a 20% nickel-containing glass-nickel alloy with high magnetic permeability and initial permeability and low coercivity. It is an important core material in the electronics industry. The main nickel alloying elements of nickel-based precision-resistance nickel alloys are chromium, aluminum, and copper. This nickel alloy has a high electrical resistivity, a low temperature coefficient of resistivity, and good corrosion resistance for making resistors. Nickel-based electrothermal nickel alloy is a nickel-nickel alloy containing 20% chromium. It has good oxidation and corrosion resistance and can be used for a long time at 1000~1100 °C.
5 nickel-based shape memory nickel alloy. A nickel-nickel alloy containing 50% (at)% of titanium. Its recovery temperature is 70 ° C, shape memory effect is good. A small change in the proportion of nickel to titanium components allows the recovery temperature to vary from 30 to 70 degrees. It is mostly used to manufacture self-expanding structural parts used in spacecraft, self-exciting fasteners used in the aerospace industry, artificial heart motors used in biomedical applications, and the like.
Commonly used nickel alloys are divided into 4 series:
(1) Inconel (Ni-Gr-Fe system)
(2) Monel Monel (Ni-Cu system)
(3) Incoloy (Fe-Ni-Gr)
(4) Hastelloy (Ni-Mo or Ni-Gr-Mo)

HASTELLOY® X

Hastelloy X (UNS N06002/2.4665)

Hastelloy X is a nickel-chromium-iron-molybdenum superalloy with outstanding high temperature strength, oxidation resistance, and fabricability. Alloy X’s oxidation resistance is excellent up to 2200° F. This nickel steel alloy has also been found to be exceptionally resistant to stress corrosion cracking in petrochemical applications. Matrix stiffening provided by the molybdenum content results in high strength in a solid-solution alloy having good fabrication characteristics. Although this nickel alloy is primarily noted for heat and oxidation resistance it also has good resistance to chloride stress-corrosion cracking, carburization, and excellent resistance to reducing or carburizing atmospheres. Two common conditions that often lead to early failure in high temperature alloys, carburization and nitriding, Hastelloy X resists.

What are the characteristics of Hastelloy X?

  • Outstanding oxidation resistance through 2000° F
  • Resistant to carburization and nitriding
  • Excellent high temperature strength
  • Good resistance to chloride stress-corrosion cracking

Alloy X is one of the most widely used nickel base superalloys for gas turbine engine combustion zone components such as transition ducts, combustor cans, spray bars and flame holders as well as in afterburners, tailpipes and cabin heaters. It is recommended for use in industrial furnace applications because it has unusual resistance to oxidizing, reducing and neutral atmospheres. Hastelloy X is also used in the chemical process industry for retorts, muffles, catalysts support grids, furnace baffles, tubing for pyrolysis operations and flash drier components.

Hastelloy X Specification:
ASTM B435, B366, B572, B619 B622, B626, B751, B775, B829, UNS Number N06002, DIN 2.4665

Chemical Composition, %

Ni Mo Cr Fe W Co Mn C
Remainder 8.0-10.0 20.5-23.0 17.0-20.0 .2-1.0 .5-2.5 1.0 max .05-.15
P S Si Al Ti B Cu  
.04 max .03 max 1.0 max .50 max .15 max .01 max .50 max  

In what applications is Hastelloy X used?

  • Gas turbines
  • Petrochemical industry
  • Industrial furnaces
  • Heat treating equipment
  • Nuclear engineering
  • Jet engine combustion chambers
  • Aircraft cabin heaters
  • Turbine exhaust components

Fabrication with Hastelloy X

Alloy X has excellent forming and welding characteristics. It can be forged and, because of its good ductility, can be cold worked. It can be welded by both manual and automatic methods including shielded metal arc, gas tungsten arc, gas metal arc and submerged arc processes. The alloy can also be resistance welded. For hot forming, the alloy should be heated to a starting temperature of 2150° F (1175°C).

ASTM Specifications

Sheet/Plate Bar
B435 B572

Mechanical Properties Representative Tensile Properties, sheet

Temp° F Tensile (psi) .2% Yield (psi) Elongation in 2” %
70 110,600 54,900 44
1000 89,000 35,600 49
1200 83,000 35,400 54
1400 67,000 34,400 53
1600 45,000 28,200 58

HASTELLOY® C-276

Hastelloy C-276 (2.4819/UNS N10276)
Hastelloy C276 Characteristic as below
1.Excellent corrosion resistance to most of corrosion media in oxidation and reduction environments.
2.Excellent resist pitting, crevice corrosion and stress corrosion cracking performance.
Hastelloy C-276 Metallurgical structure
Hastelloy C-276 is a Nickel-Molybdenum-Chromium alloy with the addition of Tungsten, has excellent corrosion resistance in a wide range of corrosive media and is especially resistant to pitting and crevice corrosion.C276 is face-centered cubic lattice structure.
Hastelloy C-276 Corrosion resistance
C276 alloy suit for many kinds of chemical process industry which contain the oxidizing medium and reductant. High molybdenum and chromium content make it can resist the chloride corrosion, and tungsten make it corrosion resistance better.C276 is one of a few material that can resist the corrosion of most chlorine, hypochlorite and chlorine dioxide, this alloy have prominent corrosion resistance to high concentration chlorate( iron chloride and copper chloride).
Hastelloy C-276 Application field:
C276 is widely used in the chemical field and petrifaction field, such as the element of chloride organic and catalyze system.This material especially suit for high temperature environment, impure inorganic acid and organic acid (such as formic acid and acetic acid), seawater corrosion environment.
Hastelloy C-276 Other application field:
1. The digester and bleacher in the use of paper pulp and paper making industry.
2. Absorption tower, re-heater and fan in the FGD system.
3. The equipment and parts in the use of acidic gas environments.
4. Acetic acid and anhydride reaction generator 
5. Sulfur acid cooling
6.MDI
7.Manufacture and processing of impure phosphoric acid.

Hastelloy C-276 Chemical composition

Alloy
%
Ni
Cr
Mo
Fe
W
Co
C
Mn
Si
V
P
S
C

Min.

balance
14.5
15
4
3
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Max.
16.5
17
7
4.5
2.5
0.08
1
1
0.35
0.04
0.03
C276
Min.
balance
14.5
15
4
3
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Max.
16.5
17
7
4.5
2.5
0.01
1
0.08
0.35
0.04
0.03

Hastelloy C-276 Physical properties:

Density
8.9 g/cm³
Melting point
1325-1370 ℃

Hastelloy C-276 Alloy minimum mechanical properties in the room temperature

Alloy state
Tensile strength
Rm N/mm²
Yield strength
R P0. 2N/mm²
Elongation
A 5 %
C /C276
690
283
40

HASTELLOY® C-22

Hastelloy C-22 (UNS N06022/2.4602)
Hastelloy C22 2.4602 Nickel Alloy Characteristic as below:
Hastelloy C22 2.4602 Nickel Alloy is a omnipotent of nickel, chromium and molybdenum mixed alloy, with better corrosion resistance performance than other alloys, for example, Hastelloy C276 alloy,C4 alloy and 625 alloy. Hastelloy C22 have a good resistance performance to pitting, crevice corrosion and stress corrosion cracking, have excellent inoxidability water medium performance, including the wet-chlorine, nitric acid or oxidizing acid mixed acid with chloride ion. Meantime, Hastelloy C22 possesses perfect resistance to reduction and oxidation of processing enviroments, then it can be used in some complicated environment or with many different manufacture target factory depend on the omnipotent performance. 
Hastelloy C22 2.4602 Nickel Alloy possess prominent resistance performance to different chemical environments, including strong oxidizing matter, such as iron chloridecopper chloride, chlorine, heat pollution liquid(organic and inorganic), formic acidacetic acid, acetyl oxide, seawater and salting liquid and so on. Hastelloy C22 alloy can resist the grain boundary precipitate form when jointing heat affected zone, this performance made it can applied in many kinds of chemical processing.

Hastelloy C-22 2.4602 Nickel Alloy Metallurgical structure
Hastelloy C22 2.4602 Nickel Alloy is face-centered cubic lattice structure.

Hastelloy C22 2.4602 Nickel Alloy Specifications
Hastelloy C-22 is covered by ASME Plate, sheet, strip, bar, tubing and pipe are covered by ASME specifications SB-574, SB-575, SB-619, SB-622 and SB-626 and by ASTM specifications B-574, B-575, B-619, B-622 and B-626. The UNS is NO6022.

Hastelloy C-22 2.4602 Nickel Alloy Corrosion resistance
Hastelloy C22 alloy suit for many kinds of chemical process industry which contain the oxidizing medium and reductant. High molybdenum and chromium content make it can resist the chloride corrosion, and tungsten makethis corrosion resistance better.Hastelloy C22 is one of a few material that can resist the corrosion of moist chlorine, hypochlorite and chlorine dioxide, this alloy have prominent corrosion resistance to high concentration chlorate( iron chloride and copper chloride).

Hastelloy C-22 2.4602 Nickel Alloy Application field:
Hastelloy C22 is widely used in the chemical field and petrifaction field, such as the element of chloride organic and catalyze system.This material especially suit for high temperature environments, impure inorganic acid and organic acid (such as formic acid and acetic acid), sea-water corrosion environments.
Hastelloy C-22 2.4602 Nickel Alloy Other application field:
1.Acetic acid/acetyl oxide
2.Acid dipping 
3.Cellophane paper manufacture
4.Chloride system
5. Complicated mixed acid 6.Electrogalvanizing groove roller
7.Expansion bellows
8.Flue gas washer system
9.Geothermal well
10.Fluorine hydride furnace cleaner
11.Incineration cleaner system 12.Nuclear fuel regeneration 13.Pesticide manufacture 
14.Phosphoric acid manufacture 
15.Acid cleaning system 
16.Plate heat exchanger 17.Selectivity filter system 
18.Sulfur dioxide cooling tower 19.Sulfonating system
20.Tubing heat exchanger 21.Resurfacing welding valve 
Austenitic stainless steel are made using up to 80% scrap iron. Not only is stainless steel an alloy of iron, but depending on the fabrication process, it can be loaded with tramp elements and inclusions detrimental to finishing requirements and corrosion resistance. Austenitic stainless steel have been the workhorse of the sanitary food and pharmaceutical industry for years. However, for reasons mentioned above, processors are beginning to use more corrosion resistant alloys to achieve the required life-cycles for their systems. One such material is Hastelloy® C-22®.
C-22 alloy is one of the most versatile nickel-chromium-molybdenum-tungsten alloys available today. This alloy demonstrates improved corrosion resistance to both uniform and localized corrosion and will exceed the performance of C-276, C-4 and alloy 625 in a variety of corrosive environments.

Hastelloy C-22 Chemical composition:

Alloy

%

Ni

Cr

Mo

Fe

W

Co

C

Mn

Si

V

P

S

C

Min.

balance

14.5

15

4

3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Max.

16.5

17

7

4.5

2.5

0.08

1

1

0.35

0.04

0.03

C22

Min.

balance

20.0

12.5

2

2.5

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Max.

22.5

14.5

6

3.5

2.5

0.015

0.5

0.08

0.35

0.02

0.02

Hastelloy C-22 Physical properties

Density

8.9 g/cm³

Melting point

1325-1370 ℃

Hastelloy C-22 Alloy m inimum mechanical properties in the roomtemperature

Alloy state

Tensile strength 
Rm N/mm²

Yield strength
R P 0.2 N/mm²

Elongation
A 5 %

Hastelloy C22

690

283

40

HASTELLOY® B-2

Hastelloy B2 (2.4617/UNS N10665)

Hastelloy B-2 Characteristic:
1. Control of iron and chromium content to a minimum to prevent the generation of β-phase Ni4Mo. 
2. Excellent corrosion resistance of restore environment. 
3. An excellent resist to concentration sulfuric acid medium and large number of non-oxidizing acid corrosion. 
4. A very good resistance of chloride reduction of stress corrosion cracking (SCC). 
5. Good corrosion resistance of various organic acids.

Metallurgical structure
Hastelloy B-2 is the face-centered cubic lattice structure. By controlling the content of iron and chromium at the minimum to reduce the processing brittle, prevent Ni4Mo precipitation during 700-870 ℃.

Corrosion resistance
Ni-Mo alloy Hastelloy B-2, the carbon and silicon content is extremely low, reducing the HAZ carbon and other impurities  precipitation, so the weld has sufficient corrosion resistance. Alloy Hastelloy B-2 in the reduction of medium with very good corrosion resistance, such as a various temperature and concentration of hydrochloric acid
In the middle of the concentration of sulfuric acid solution (or contain a certain amount of chloride ions) also has very good corrosion resistance. At the same time can be used to acetic acid and phosphoric acid environment. Alloy material suitable only in the metallurgical structure and pure crystal structure in order to have the best corrosion resistance.

Applied field:
Alloy Hastelloy B-2 with a wide range of applications in the field of chemical, petrochemical, energy manufacturing and pollution control , particularly in the sulfuric acid, hydrochloric acid, phosphoric acid, acetic acid, and other industries.

Specification:
UNS N10665, ASTM B333, ASTM B335, ASTM B366, ASTM B619, ASTM B622, ASTM B626

Hastelloy B Chemical compostion:
Alloy 
%
Ni 
Mo 
Fe 
Cr 
Co 
Mn 
V
Si 
P
Hastelloy B
Min. 
Balance 
26
4.0
 
 
 
 
0.2
 
 
 
Max. 
30
6.0
1.0
2.5
0.05
1.0
0.4
1.0
0.04
0.03
Hastelloy B-2
Min. 
Balance 
26
2.0
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Max. 
30
7.0
1.0
1.0
0.02
1.0
 
0.1
0.04
0.03

Hastelloy B Physical properties:
Density
9.24g/cm3
Melting point
1330-1380℃

Hastelloy B Alloy minimum mechanical properties in the room temperature:
Alloy state
Tensile strength
Rm N/mm2
Yield strength
RP0.2N/mm2
Elongation
A5 %
Hastelloy B
690
310
40

INCOLOY® 825

Incoloy 825 (UNS N08825/2.48580)
Incoloy 825 2.4858 UNS N08825 is a nickel-iron-chromium alloy with additions of molybdenum and copper. This nickel steel alloy’s chemical composition is designed to provide exceptional resistance to many corrosive environments. It is similar to alloy 800 but has improved resistance to aqueous corrosion. It has excellent resistance to both reducing and oxidizing acids, to stress-corrosion cracking, and to localized attack such as pitting and crevice corrosion. Alloy 825 is especially resistant to sulfuric acids and phosphoric acids. This nickel steel alloy is used for chemical processing, pollution-control equipment, oil and gas well piping, nuclear fuel reprocessing, acid production, and pickling equipment.
Incoloy 825 Characteristic as below:
1. Good stress corrosion cracking resistance performance
2. Good resistance for pitting and crevice corrosion performance
3. Good anti-oxidation and non-oxidzing heat acid performance
4. Good mechanical performance in both room temperature and up to 550℃
5. Have the pressure vessel authenticate when manufacture temperature up to 450℃ 
Pressure Vessels
Incoloy 825 is approved for pressure vessel operating temperatures up to 525°C (AS1210, AS4041), 538°C (ASME Boiler & Pressure Vessel Code, Sections I, III, VIII, IX, Cases 1936, N-188). Brittle phases may form in alloy 825 at temperatures above ~ 540°C, so it is not normally used at these temperatures, where creep-rupture properties would be design factors.
Incoloy 825 Metallurgical structure: 825 is the face-centered cubic lattice structure. 
Incoloy 825 Corrosion resistance:
825 is an all-purpose project alloy, have good corrosion resistance of the acid and alkali metal property in both oxidation and reduction environments. High nickel content made it with effective stress corrosion cracking resistance performance. 825 have excellent corrosion resistance in different kinds of media, such as sulfuric acidphosphoric acidnitric acid and organic acid, alkali metal such as sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, and hydrochloric acid. A variety of media corrosion of nuclear-burning dissolver show 825 high integrated prpperty, like sulfuric acid, nitric acid and potassium hydroxide are all dealing in a same device. 

Incoloy 825 Application field: 825 widely use in many kinds of industry field that the working temperature no more than 550℃. Incoloy 825 Typical application field:
1. Sulfuric acid factory usage for heating pipe, container, basket,chain and so on. 
2. Cooling heat exchanger, marine product pipeline system and gas pipeline of acidic environment.
3. Heat exchanger, steam machine, washing, impregnation pipe, etc. for phosphoric acid produce 
4. Oil refining in the air heat exchanger
5. Food project
6. Chemical process
7. Application of high pressure oxygen flam-retardant alloy

Incoloy 825 Chemical composition:

Alloy
%
Ni
Cr
Fe
C
Mn
Si
Cu
Mo
Al
Ti
P
S
825
Min.
38
19.5
balance
 
 
 
1.5
2.5
1.0
0.6
 
 
Max.
46
23.5
balance
0.05
1
0.5
3
3.5
0.2
1.2
0.02
0.03

Incoloy 825 Physical properties

Density 8.1 g/cm³
Melting point 1370-1400℃

ASTM Specifications

ASM specifications for Incoloy Alloy 825.

Specification Title
B163 Seamless Nickel and Nickel Alloy Condenser and Heat Exchanger Tube
B423 Nickel-Iron-Chromium-Molybdenum-Copper Alloy (UNS N08825 and N08221)* Seamless Pipe and Tube
B424 Ni-Fe-Cr-Mo-Cu Alloy (UNS N08825 and UNS N08221)* Plate, Sheet, and Strip
B425  Ni-Fe-Cr-Mo-Cu Alloy (UNS N08825)
B704 Welded UNS N06625 and UNS N08825 Alloy Tubes
B705 Nickel-Alloy (UNS N06625 and N08825) Welded Pipe
B751 General Requirements for Nickel and Nickel Alloy Welded Tube

Pipe Smls Pipe Welded Tube Smls Tube Welded Sheet/Plate Bar Forging Fitting
B423       B424 B425 B564 B366, B564

Incoloy 825 Alloy minimum mechanical properties in the room temperature

Alloy state
Tensile strength
Rm N/mm²
Yield strength
R P0. 2N/mm²
Elongation
A 5 %
Brinell hardness
HB
825
550
220
30
≤200

INCOLOY® 800H / 800HT

Incoloy 800H (UNS N08810)/Incoloy 800HT (UNS N08811)
800H Characteristic as below:
1.Excellent corrosion resistance in the water media of the extremely high temperature of 500℃.
2.Good stress corrosion resistance
3.Good machining 
Incoloy 800H Metallurgical structure:
800H is the face-centered cubic lattice structure, very low carbon content and increased Ti:C rate improve the stability of the structure, anti-allergy, and anti-intergranular corrosion. Low temperature annealing around 950℃ ensure the fine grainstructure. 
Incoloy 800H Corrosion resistance:
800H can not be corroded in many kinds of media. Its higher nickel content made it have good stress corrosion resistance cracking properties in the water corrosion condition. High chromium content made it better resistance to pitting and crevice corrosion cracking. This alloy can resist nitric acid and organic acid, but not so fine in the sulfuric acid and hydrochloric acid.
800H have good corrosion resistance to both oxidation and non-oxidizing salt, but maybe a little pitting in halide, and also excellent properties in the mixture of water, smoke, steam, air and carbon dioxide. 
Incoloy 800H Application range and field:
1.Nitrate condenser—Corrosion resistance of Nitric acid
2.Steam heating pipes–Very good mechanical properties
3.Heat up element tube–Very good mechanical properties
For the application of up to 500℃ environment, alloy state supplies change to annealing
Incoloy 800H Chemical composition:
Alloy
%
Ni
Cr
Fe
C
Mn
Si
Cu
S
Al
Ti
800

Min.

30
19
 
 
 
 
 
 
0.15
0.15
Max.
35
23
balance
0.10
1.5
1
0.75
0.015
0.60
0.60
800H
Min.
30
19
 
0.05
 
 
 
 
0.15
0.15
Max.
35
23
balance
0.10
1.5
1
0.75
0.015
0.60
0.60
800HT
Min.
30
19
 
0.06
 
 
 
 
0.15
0.15
Max.
35
23
balance
0.10
1.5
1
0.75
0.015
0.60
0.60
AI+Ti: 0.85-1.20

Incoloy 800H Physical properties

Density
8.0 g/cm³
Melting point
1350-1400 ℃

Incoloy 800H Alloy minimum mechanical properties in the room temperature

Alloy
Tensile strength
Rm N/mm²
Yield strength
R P 0. 2N/mm²
Elongation
A 5 %
800
500
210
35
800H
450
180
35

INCONEL® 718

Inconel 718 (UNS N07718/2.4688)

718 Characteristic as below:
1.Workability
2.High tensile strength,endurance strength,creep strength and rupture strength at 700℃.
3.High inoxidability at1000℃.
4.Steady mechanical performance in the low temperature.
5.Good welding performance.
Inconel 718 Standard and Grade
ASTM B637 for Bars and ASTM B670 and ASTM B906 for sheet and coils
GH4169 GH169 (China), NC19FeNb(France), W.Nr 2.4688 NiCr19Fe19Nb5(Germany) Inconel 718 Metallurgical structure
718 alloy is Austenitic structure, precipitation hardening generate “γ” made it excellent mechanical performance. Grain boundary generate “δ” made it the best plasticity in the heat treatment
Inconel 718 Corrosion resistance
718 alloy with extremely resistance to stress corrosion cracking and pitting ability in high temperature or low temperature environments, especially the inoxidability in the high temperature.
Inconel 718 Application field:
The elevated temperature strength, excellent corrosion resistance and workability at 700℃ propertie made it use in a wide range of high requirement environments. 
1.Steam turbine
2.Liquid-fuel rocket 
3.Cryogenic engineering
4.Acid environment
5.Nuclear engineering
Inconel 718 Specification:
ASTM B637, B 670, B 906
UNS Number N07718
NACE MR-01-75
Alloy 718, Haynes® 718, Nicrofer® 5219, Allvac® 718, Altemp® 718
Inconel 718 Chemical composition

Alloy

%

Ni

Cr

Fe

Mo

Nb

Co

C

Mn

Si

S

Cu

Al

Ti

718

Min.

50

17

balance

2.8

4.75

 

 

 

 

 

 

0.2

0.7

Max.

55

21

3.3

5.5

1

0.08

0.35

0.35

0.01

0.3

0.8

1.15

Inconel 718 Physical Properties

Density

8.2 g/cm³

Melting point

1260-1340 ℃

Inconel 718 Alloy minimum mechanical properties in the roomtemperature

Alloy

Tensile strength 
Rm N/mm²

Yield strength 
R P0. 2N/mm²

Elongation 
A 5 %

Brinell hardness
HB

Solution treatment

965

550

30

≤363

INCONEL® ALLOY 625

Inconel 625 (UNS N06625/2.4856)
Inconel 625 2.4856 Characteristic as below:
1. Excellent corrosion resistance of different kinds of media in both oxidation and reduction environments.
2. Excellent resistance of pitting and crevice corrosion, and won’t happen stress corrosion cracking because of chloride.
3.Excellent resistance of the inorganic acid corrosion performance, such as nitric acidphosphoric acidsulfuric acidhydrochloric acid and the mixture of sulfuric acid and hydrochloric acid.
4. Excellent corrosion resistance of different kinds of inorganic acid mixture performance.
5. Good corrosion resistance of a variety of concentrations of hydrochloric acid when the temperature up to 40℃
6. Good machining and welding, no weld cracking sensitivity.
7. Have pressure vessel authentication for the wall temperature between -196-450℃
8. Apply for the highest standard lever VII of acidic environment by the NACE MR-01-75 authorized. 
Inconel 625 2.4856 Metallurgical structure
625 is face-centered cubic lattice structure. Dissolve out the carbon granule and instability quaternary phase, then change it to stability Ni3 (Nb,Ti) trimetric lattice around 650℃ after a long time heat preservation. nickel-chromium content will strength the mechanical performance in the state solution while suppress the plasticity 
Inconel 625 2.4856 Corrosion resistance
625 own a very good corrosion resistance in many media, especially with excellent resistance to pitting, crevice corrosion, intercrystalline corrosion, and erode in oxide, also good resistance to inorganic acid corrosion, such as nitric acid, phosphoric acid, sulfuric acid and hydrochloric acid. 625 can resist the alkali and organic acid corrosion in the oxidation and reduction environment. Effect resists the chloride reduction stress corrosion cracking. Normally no corrosion in the sea-water and industry environments since high corrosion resistance to the sea-water and salting liquid,as well as in high temperature, without sensitivity during welding. 625 have the resistance to oxidation and carbonizing in the static and cycle environments, also hacve the resistance the chlorine corrosion.
Inconel 625 2.4856 Application field
Soften annealing low carbon alloy 625 widely used in the chemical process industry, good corrosion resistance and high strength made it an good choice for structural parts. 625 have application in sea-water for local mechanical stress attach.
Fabrication with Inconel 625 2.4856 
Alloy 625 has excellent forming and welding characteristics. It may be forged or hot worked providing temperature is maintained in the range of about 1800-2150° F. Ideally, to control grain size, finish hot working operations should be performed at the lower end of the temperature range. Because of its good ductility, alloy 625 is also readily formed by cold working. However, the alloy does work-harden rapidly so intermediate annealing treatments may be needed for complex component forming operations. In order to restore the best balance of properties, all hot or cold worked parts should be annealed and rapidly cooled. This nickel alloy can be welded by both manual and automatic welding methods, including gas tungsten arc, gas metal arc, electron beam and resistance welding. It exhibits good restraint welding characteristics.
Inconel 625 Typical application field as below:
1 .The Organic chemical process parts contains chloride, especially in the use of acid chloride catalyst.
2. The digester and bleacherin the use of paper pulp and paper making industry.
3.Absorption tower, re-heater,gas import board, fan, blender, fair water fin, flue and so on for using in flue gas desulfurization system.
4. The equipment and parts in the use of acidic gas environments.
5. Acetic acid and anhydride reaction generator 
6. Sulfur acid cooling

Inconel 625 Chemical composition

Alloy
%
Ni
Cr
Mo
Nb+N
Fe
Al
Ti
C
Mn
Si
Cu
P
S
625

Min.

58
20
8
3.15
 
 
       
 
 
 
Max.
 
23
10
4.15
5
0.4
0.4
0.1
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.015
0.015

Inconel 625 Physical properties

Density
8.4 g/cm³
Melting point
1290-1350℃

ASTM Specifications

Pipe Smls Pipe Welded Tube Smls Tube Welded Sheet/Plate Bar Forging Fitting Wire
B444 B705 B444 B704 B443 B446

Mechanical Properties Representative Tensile Properties, bar, 1800° F anneal

Temp° F Tensile (psi) .2% Yield (psi) Elongation in 2 “ (%)
70 144,000 84,000 44
400 134,000 66,000 45
600 132,000 63,000 42.5
800 131,500 61,000 45
1000 130,000 60,500 48
1200 119,000 60,000 34
1400 78,000 58,500 59
1600 40,000 39,000 117

Inconel 625 Alloy m inimum mechanical properties in the room temperature

Alloy state
Tensile strength
Rm N/mm²
Yield strength
R P0. 2N/mm²
Elongation
A 5 %
Brinell hardness
HB
625
760
345
30
≤220

INCONEL® ALLOY 601

Inconel 601 (UNS N06601/2.48510)
Inconel 601 2.4851 is a nickel-chromium alloy used for applications that require resistance to corrosion and heat. This nickel alloy stands out due to its resistance to high temperature oxidation, remaining highly resistant to oxidation through 2200° F. Alloy 601 develops a tightly adherent oxide scale which resists spalling even under conditions of severe thermal cycling. This nickel alloy has good high temperature strength, and retains its ductility after long service exposure.
It has good resistance to aqueous corrosion, high mechanical strength, and is readily formed, machined and welded. Inconel 601 2.4851 properties make it a material of broad utility in fields like thermal processing, chemical processing, pollution control, aerospace, and power generation. However, alloy 601 2.4851 is not suggested for use in strongly reducing, sulfur bearing environments.
Inconel 601 2.4851 Characteristic as below:
1.Excellent inoxidability in the high temperature.
2.Good resistance to carbonizing.
3.Good inoxidabilitiy in sulfur atmosphere 
4.Good mechanical properties in both room temperature and high temperature.
5.Good resistance to stress corrosion cracking, 601 have high creep rupture strength since it limits the carbon content and grain size, so recommend to use for above 500℃ environment.
Inconel 601 2.4851 Metallurgical structure: 2.4851 alloy 601 is face-centered cubic lattice structure. 
Inconel 601 2.4851 Corrosion resistance: One of the mainly performance of 601 is inexorability in high temperature, even in very inclement conditions. If in the process of heating and cooling cycle, 601 can generate the dense layer of oxide film to get high spalling resistance. 601 have good carbonation resistance. With excellent inoxidability in the high temperature of sulfur atmosphere since it has high chromium and aluminum content.
Inconel 601 Application field:
1.The tray,basket and tool clamp in the heat treatment factory.
2.Steel shares at annealing and radiation control, high-speed gas burners, Industrial furnace silk screen.
3.Separate tank of ammonia reforming and catalytic support grid of nitric acid producing.
4.Exhaust system parts
5.Solid waste incinerator’s combustion chamber
6.Channel support and soot dealing parts.
7.Detoxification exhaust system components
8.Oxygen re-heater

Inconel 601 Chemaical composition:

Alloy
%
Ni
Cr
Fe
C
Mn
Si
Cu
Al
P
S
601

Min.

58
21
 
 
 
 
 
1.0
 
 
Max.
63
25
balance
0.1
1.5
0.5
1
1.7
0.02
0.015

Inconel 601 Physical properties

Density
8.1g/cm³
Melting point
1320-1370℃

ASTM Specifications

Pipe Smls Welded Pipe Tube Smls Tube Welded Sheet/Plate Bar Forging Fitting Wire
B167 B517 B167 B168 B166 B564 B366 B166

Inconel 601 Alloy minimum mechanical properties in the room temperature

Alloy state
Tensile strength
Rm N/mm²
Yield strength
R P0. 2N/mm²
Elongation
A 5 %
Brinell hardness
HB
Annealing treatment
650
300
30
Solution treatment
600
240
30
≤220

MONEL® ALLOY 400

Monel 400 (2.4360/UNS N04400)

Monel 400 2.4360 Nickel Alloy is a Nickel-Copper alloy that is resistant to seawater and steam at high temperature as well as to salt and caustic solutions. Alloy 400 is a solid solution alloy that can only be hardened by cold working. This nickel alloy exhibits characteristics like good corrosion resistance, good weldability and high strength. A low corrosion rate in rapidly flowing brackish or seawater combined with excellent resistance to stress-corrosion cracking in most freshwater, and its resistance to variety of corrosive condition led to its wide use in marine application and other non-oxidizing chloride solutions.

Alloy 400 2.4360 Nickel Alloy is particularly resistant to hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid when they are de-aerated. As would be expected from its high copper content, alloy 400 is rapidly attacked by nitric acid and ammonia systems. Monel 400 has great mechanical properties at subzero temperatures, can be used in temperatures up to 1000° F, and its melting point is 2370-2460° F. However, alloy 400 is low in strength in the annealed condition so, a variety of tempers may be used to increase the strength.

Alloy 400 2.4360 Nickel Alloy is a nickel-copper alloy with excellent corrosion resistance in a wide variety of media. The alloy is characterized by good general corrosion resistance, good weldability and moderate to high strength. The alloy has been used in a variety of applications. It has excellent resistance to rapidly flowing brackish water or seawater. It is particularly resistant to hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acids when they are de-aerated. The alloy is slightly magnetic at room temperature. The alloy is widely used in the chemical, oil and marine industries.

Alloy 400 2.4360 Nickel Alloy is widely used in many fields, especially marine and chemical processing. Typical applications are valves and pumps; pump and propeller shafts; marine fixtures and fasteners; electrical and electronic components; springs; chemical processing equipment; gasoline and fresh water tanks; crude petroleum stills, process vessels and piping; boiler feed water heaters and other heat exchangers; and deaerating heaters.

Characteristics

  • Corrosion resistance in an extensive range of marine and chemical environments. From pure water to nonoxidizing mineral acids, salts and alkalis.
  • This alloy is more resistant to nickel under reducing conditions and more resistant than copper under oxidizing conditions, it does show however better resistance to reducing media than oxidizing.
  • Good mechanical properties from subzero temperatures up to about 480C.
  • Good resistance to sulfuric and hydrofluoric acid. Aeration however will result in increased corrosion rates. May be used to handle hydrochloric acid, but the presence of oxidizing salts will greatly accelerate corrosive attack.
  • Resistance to neutral, alkaline and acid salts is shown, but poor resistance is found with oxidizing acid salts such as ferric chloride.
  • Excellent resistance to chloride ion stress corrosion cracking.

Applications

  • Feed water and steam generator tubing.
  • Brine heaters, sea water scrubbers in tanker inert gas systems.
  • Sulfuric acid and hydrofluoric acid alkylation plants.
  • Pickling bat heating coils.
  • Heat exchanger in a variety of industries.
  • Transfer piping from oil refinery crude columns.
  • Plant for the refining of uranium and isotope separation in the production of nuclear fuel.
  • Pumps and valves used in the manufacture of perchlorethylene, chlorinated plastics.
  • Monoethanolamine (MEA) reboiling tube.
  • Cladding for the upper areas of oil refinery crude columns.
  • Propeller and pump shafts.

Specifications and Designation

  • UNS N04400
  • BS 3072 – 3076 (NA13)
  • ASTM B 127, B 163 – B 165,
  • B 366, B 564, B 725, B 730,
  • B 751, B 775, B 829
  • ASME SB-127, SB-163 – SB-165,
  • SB-366, SB-564, SB-725,
  • SB-730, SB-751, SB-775,
  • SB-829
  • AECMA Pr EN 2305
  • SAE AMS 4544, 4574,
  • 4675, 4730, 4731, 7233
  • DIN 17743, 17750 – 17754
  • Werkstoff Nr. 2.4360,
  • 2.4361
  • VdTÜV 263
  • QQ-N 281
  • NACE MR-01-75

Chemical Composition, %

C Mn S Si Ni Cu Fe
.30 max 2.00 max .024 max .50 max 63.0 min 28.0-34.0 2.50 max

Corrosion Resistant Monel 400

Alloy 400 is virtually immune to chloride ion stress corrosion cracking in typical environments. Generally, its corrosion resistance is very good in reducing environments, but poor in oxidizing conditions. It is not useful in oxidizing acids, such as nitric acid and nitrous. Nevertheless, it is resistant to most alkalis, salts, waters, food products, organic substances and atmospheric conditions at normal and elevated temperatures.

This nickel alloy is attacked in sulfur-bearing gases above approximately 700° F and molten sulfur attacks the alloy at temperatures over approximately 500° F.

Monel 400 offers about the same corrosion resistance as nickel but with higher maximum working pressure and temperatures and at a lower cost due to its superior ability to be machined.

Fabrication with Monel 400

Alloy 400 can easily be welded by gas-tungsten arc, gas metal arc or shielded metal arc processes using appropriate filler metals. There is no need for post weld heat treatment, however, thorough cleaning after welding is critical for optimum corrosion resistance, otherwise there is the risk of contamination and embrittlement.

Finished fabrications can be produced to a wide range of mechanical properties when proper control of the amount of hot or cold working and the selection of appropriate thermal treatments is done.

Like most other nickel alloys, Monel 400 is typically tough to machine and will work harden. However, excellent results can e obtained if you make the correct choices for tooling and machining.

ASTM Specifications

Pipe Smls Pipe Welded Tube Smls Tube Welded Sheet/Plate Bar Forging Fitting Wire
B165 B725 B163   B127 B164 B564 B366  

Mechanical Properties
Typical room temperature Tensile Properties of Annealed Material

Product Form Condition Tensile (ksi) .2% Yield (ksi) Elongation (%) Hardness (HRB)
Rod & Bar Annealed 75-90 25-50 60-35 60-80
Rod & Bar Cold-Drawn Stress Relieved 84-120 55-100 40-22 85-20 HRC
Plate Annealed 70-85 28-50 50-35 60-76
Sheet Annealed 70-85 30-45 45-35 65-80
Tube & Pipe Seamless Annealed 70-85 25-45 50-35 75 max *

*The ranges shown are composites for various product sizes and therefore are not suitable for specification purposes. Hardness values are suitable for specification purposes provided tensile properties are not also specified.

Machinability

Conventional machining techniques used for iron based alloys may be used. This alloy does work-harden during machining and has higher strength and “gumminess” not typical of steels. Heavy duty machining equipment and tooling should be used to minimize chatter or work-hardening of the alloy ahead of the cutting. Most any commercial coolant may be used in the machining operations. Water-base coolants are preferred for high speed operations such as turning, grinding, or milling. Heavy lubricants work best for drilling, tapping, broaching or boring. 
Turning: Carbide tools are recommended for turning with a continuous cut. High-speed steel tooling should be used for interrupted cuts and for smooth finishing to close tolerance. Tools should have a positive rake angle.
Cutting speeds and feeds are in the following ranges: For High-Speed Steel Tools For Carbide Tooling Depth Surface Feed Depth Surface Feed of cut speed in inches of cut speed in inches inches feet/min. per rev. inches feet/min. per rev. 0.250″ 60-70 0.030 0.250″ 250-300 0.020 0.050″ 90-100 0.010 0.050″ 300-350 0.008 
Drilling: Steady feed rates must be used to avoid work hardening due to dwelling of the drill on the metal. Rigid set-ups are essential with as short a stub drill as feasible. Conventional high-speed steel drills work well. Feeds vary from 0.0007 inch per rev. for holes of less than 1/16″ diameter, 0.003 inch per rev. for 1/4″ dia., to 0.010 inch per rev. for holes of 7/8″diameter. Surface speeds of 45-55 feet/minute, are best for drilling. 
Milling: To obtain good accuracy and a smooth finish it is essential to have rigid machines and fixtures and sharp cutting tools. High-speed steel cutters such as M-2 or M-10 work best with cutting speeds of 60 to 80 feet per minute and feed of 0.005″-0.008″ per cutting tooth. Grinding: The alloy should be wet ground and aluminum oxide wheels or belts are preferred.

Forming

This alloy has good ductility and may be readily formed by all conventional methods. Because the alloy is stronger than regular steel it requires more powerful equipment to accomplish forming. Heavy-duty lubricants should be used during cold forming. It is essential to thoroughly clean the part of all traces of lubricant after forming as embrittlement of the alloy may occur at high temperatures if lubricant is left on.

Welding

The commonly used welding methods work well with this alloy. Matching alloy filler metal should be used. If matching alloy is not available then the nearest alloy richer in the essential chemistry (Ni, Co, Cr, Mo) should be used. All weld beads should be slightly convex. It is not necessary to use preheating. Surfaces to be welded must be clean and free from oil, paint or crayon marking. The cleaned area should extend at least 2″ beyond either side of a welded joint. 
Gas-Tungsten Arc Welding: DC straight polarity (electrode negative) is recommended. Keep as short an arc length as possible and use care to keep the hot end of filler metal always within the protective atmosphere.
Shielded Metal-Arc Welding: Electrodes should be kept in dry storage and if moisture has been picked up the electrodes should be baked at 600 F for one hour to insure dryness. Current settings vary from 50 amps for material 0.062″ thick up to 190 amps for material of 1/2″ and thicker. It is best to weave the electrode slightly as this alloy weld metal does not tend to spread. Cleaning of slag is done with a wire brush (hand or powered). Complete removal of all slag is very important before successive weld passes and also after final welding. 
Gas Metal-Arc Welding: Reverse-polarity DC should be used and best results are obtained with the welding gun at 90 degrees to the joint. For Short-Circuiting-Transfer GMAW a typical voltage is 19-25 with a current of 100-175 amps and a wire feed of 225-400 inches per minute. For Spray-Transfer GMAW voltage of 26 to 33 and current in the range of 200-350 amps with wire feed rate of 200-500 inches per minute, depending on filler wire diameter. 
Submerged-Arc Welding: Matching filler metal, the same as for GMAW, should be used. DC current with either reverse or straight polarity may be used. Convex weld beads are preferred.

Cold Working

Cold forming may be done using standard tooling although plain carbon tool steels are not recommended for forming as they tend to produce galling. Soft die materials (bronze, zinc alloys, etc.) minimize galling and produce good finishes, but die life is somewhat short. For long production runs the alloy tool steels ( D-2, D-3) and high-speed steels (T-1, M-2, M-10) give good results especially if hard chromium plated to reduce galling. Tooling should be such as to allow for liberal clearances and radii. Heavy duty lubricants should be used to minimize galling in all forming operations. Bending of sheet or plate through 180 degrees is generally limited to a bend radius of 1 T for material up to 1/8″ thick and 2 T for material thicker than 1/8″.

Annealing

Annealing may be done at 1700 F. A stress-relief anneal may be done at 1050 F for 1 to 2 hours, followed by slow cooling.

Hardening

Hardens due to cold work only.

Physical Properties

Density (lb / cu. in.)

0.318

Specific Gravity

8.8

Specific Heat (Btu/lb/Deg F – [32-212 Deg F])

0.105

Electrical Resistivity (microhm-cm (at 68 Deg F))

307

Melting Point (Deg F)

2425

Poissons Ratio

0.32

Thermal Conductivity

167

Mean Coeff Thermal Expansion

7.7

Modulus of Elasticity Tension

26

Mechanical Properties

Form

Plate

Condition

Test Specimen Annealed

Temper

70

Tensile Strength

83

Yield Strength

39

Elongation

42

Rockwell

B68

ALLOY 20

Alloy 20 (UNS N08020/2.4660)

Material 2.4660 (Nickel alloy 20) is a high-corrosion resistant alloy, which shows very good resistance to phosphoric acidnitric acidsulfuric acid in chloric media. 2.4660 (alloy 20) is chiefly used in the chemical industry, apparatus engineering and heat exchanger.
Alloy 20 Carpenter 20, is a nickel-iron-chromium austenitic alloy that was developed for maximum resistance to acid attack, specifically sulfuric acid. This superalloy has excellent resistance to general corrosion, pitting, and crevice corrosion in chemicals containing chlorides and sulfuric, phosphoric, and nitric acids. It also contains niobium for stabilization against sensitization and resultant intergranular corrosion
Carpenter 20 combines excellent corrosion resistance with elevated mechanical properties and relatively easy fabrication. Although originally designed for use in sulfuric acid related industries, Alloy 20 is now a popular choice for a wide variety of industries including the chemical, food, pharmaceutical, and plastics industries. In addition, this superalloy is used in heat exchangers, mixing tanks, metal cleaning and pickling equipment, and piping.
There has long been a debate on whether Carpenter 20 is a stainless steel or a nickel alloy because the nickel content is right on the border of defining it as one way or the other. So, depending on who you talk to this alloy may be referred to as alloy 20 Stainless Steel or as a nickel alloy. Either way it is still great for corrosion resistance.
2.4660 have a good resistance properties to pitting and crevice corrosion and good resistance to intercrystalline corrosion, stress corrosion.

What are the characteristics of Alloy 20?

  • Excellent general corrosion resistance to sulfuric acid
  • Excellent resistance to chloride stress corrosion cracking
  • Excellent mechanical properties and fabricability
  • Minimal carbide precipitation during welding
  • Excels in resisting corrosion to hot sulfuric acids
Material No. 2.4660
EN symbol (short) NiCr20CuMo
AISI/SAE
UNS N 08020
AFNOR
B.S.
alloy alloy 20
Registered work’s label Nicrofer® 3620Nb
Standards

Chemical composition
C
≤ %
Si
≤ %
Mn
≤ %
P
≤ %
S
≤ %
Cr
%
Mo
%
Ni
%
V
%
0,07 1,0 2,0 0,025 0,015 19,0-21,0 2,0 –3,0 32,0-38,0  
Nb
%
Ti
≤ %
Al
%
Co
≤ %
Cu
≤ %
N
%
Fe
≤ %
Ce
%
Y
≤ %
>=8xC ≤ 1,0 ²     1,5 3,0–4,0   rest    
¹  in accordance with Key to Steel 2001   ² Nb+Ta
Special characteristics
Temperature range Density kg/dm³ Hardness
typically up to 500°C 8,08  

Welding filler
Electrode 2.4609
Main fields of application
chemical industry, phosphoric acid, sulphuric acid, hydrofluoric acidheat exchanger, apparatus engineering, food industry

NICKEL 200/201

Nickel Alloy 200 (UNS 02200/2.4066)/Nickel Alloy 201 (UNS 02201/2.4068)

2.4066 2.4068. Equal to Nickel 200 Nickel 201. Nickel 200 and Nickel 201 are solid solution strengthened, commercially pure wrought materials with good mechanical properties over a wide range of temperature and excellent corrosion resistance, in particular hydroxides. Nickel 201 was a modification of 200 to control carbon (.02 max) which keeps it from being embrittled by intergranular precipitate at temperature of 600° F to 1400° F. Typically, the elemental restrictions of both, nickel 200 and nickel 201, dual-certified chemistry resulting in a single alloy with the desired characteristics of both alloys.
2.4068 is a commercially pure (99.6%) Nickel alloy very similar to Werkstoff 2.4066 but with a lower carbon content to so it can be used at higher temperatures. The lower carbon content also reduces hardness, making Werkstoff 2.4068 particularly suitable for cold-formed items. Application in chemical industry, production of caustic soda solution, chlorine, hydrogen chloride, food industry

Both Nickel 200 and 201 offer corrosion resistance in reducing and neutral media as well as in oxidizing atmospheres provided that the oxidizing media allows the formation of a passive oxide film. This oxide film accounts for the materials excellent resistance in caustic environments. Corrosion rates in both marine and rural atmospheres are very low. The resistance of Nickel 200/201 to corrosion by distilled and natural waters is excellent. Plus it also gives excellent service in flowing sea water even at high velocity, but in stagnant or very low-velocity seawater severe local attack may occur under fouling organisms or other deposits. In hot water systems where the steam contains carbon dioxide and air in certain proportions, corrosion rates will be initially high but will decrease with time if conditions favor the formation of a protective film.

2.4066 Standard :DIN 17740/2.4066
Anticorrosion environment: Many kinds of organic solution/alkalinity liquids. Apply to the production soda water, the chlorine, the salty pedantry, the soap, Yuan wash the medicinal preparation, the food industry.

Nickel 200 is normally limited to service at temperatures below 600° F. At higher temperature Nickel 200 products can suffer from graphitization which can result in severely compromised properties. When operating temperatures are expected to exceed 600° F, carbon content becomes critical. The lower carbon content of Nickel 201 makes the material resistant to graphitization and therefore less subject to embrittlement. Nickel 200 & 201 are approved for construction of pressure vessels and components under ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section VIII, Division 1. Nickel 200 is approved for service up to 600° F while Nickel 201 is approved for service up to 1230° F. Melting point is 2615-2635° F.

2.4066 (Nickel Alloy 200) is unalloyed nickel with excellent corrosion resistance and excellent stability against alkaline media and good mechanical properties in a broad temperature range. Shows good corrosion resistance under reducing conditions, e.g. hydrofluoric acid and hydrochloric acid. Shows good stability under oxidizing conditions (by creating a surface protection film). Material 2.4066 (Nickel Alloy 200) is used in the chemical industry and petrochemical industry.

2.4608 is a nickel base superalloy with excellent carburization, oxidation and hot corrosion resistance. It has high creep-rupture strength with exceptional ability to withstand repeated thermal shock.The main difference between Nickel 200 and Nickel 201 is that the latter has a lower Carbon content. Because of its lower Carbon content, Nickel 201 is well-suited for applications that involve exposure to temperature above 600 degrees Fahrenheit.

What are the characteristics of Nickel 200/201?

  • Highly resistant to various reducing chemicals
  • Excellent resistance to caustic alkalies
  • High electrical conductivity
  • Excellent corrosion resistance to distilled and natural waters
  • Resistance to neutral and alkaline salt solutions
  • Excellent resistance to dry fluorine
  • Widely used to handle caustic soda
  • Good thermal, electrical and magnetostrictive properties
  • Offers some resistance to hydrochloric acids and sulfuric acids at modest temperatures and concentrations

Nickel 200 is normally limited to service at temperatures below 600° F. At higher temperatures Nickel 200 products can suffer from graphitization which can result in severely compromised properties. When operating temperatures are expected to exceed 600° F, carbon content becomes critical. The lower carbon content of Nickel 201 makes the material resistant to graphitization and therefore less subject to embrittlement. Nickel 200 & 201 are approved for construction of pressure vessels and components under ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section VIII, Division 1. Nickel 200 is approved for service up to 600° F while Nickel 201 is approved for service up to 1230° F. Melting point is 2615-2635° F.

Nickel 200 (UNS N02200) Chemical Composition, %

Ni Fe Cu C Mn S Si
99.0 min .40 max .25 max .15 max .35 max .01 max .35 max


Nickel 201 (UNS N02201) Chemical Composition,%

Ni Fe Cu C Mn S Si
99.0 min .40 max .25 max .02 max .35 max .01 max .35 max

no2200 no2201 - What are Nickel Alloys PipesIn what applications is Nickel 200/201 used?

  • Food processing equipment
  • Marine and offshore engineering
  • Salt production
  • Caustic handling equipment
  • Manufacture and handling of sodium hydroxide, particularly at temperatures above 300° F
  • Reactors and vessels in which fluorine is generated and reacted with hydrocarbons

Applications where Nickel 200-201 can be used include chemical processing and storage, synthetic fiber production, and processes where sodium hydroxide and fluorine is used. Other applications include aerospace and defense as well as food processing. Nickel 200/201 has exceptional resistance to caustic alkalies at various temperatures and concentrations.

Fabrication with Nickel 200/201

All hot working and cold working practices can be utilized when shaping Nickel 200/201. Hot working temperature should be between 1200° F and 2250° F with heavy forming to be performed at temperature above 1600° F. Annealing should be performed at a temperature between 1300° F and 1600° F. Care should be taken when choosing the annealing temperature and time at temperature for this can greatly influence the mechanical properties and structure of the material.

Nickel 200/201 can be easily welded by conventional welding, brazing, and soldering processes with the exception of the oxyacetylene process.

Nickel 200/201 ASTM Specifications 

Pipe Smls Welded Pipe Tube Smls Tube Welded Sheet/Plate Bar Fitting
B161 B622 B161 B622 B162 B160 B163

Mechanical Properties Room Temperature properties of Various Products 

Product Form Condition Tensile Strength
(ksi)
.2% Yield Strength
(ksi)
Elongation (%) Hardness (HRB)
Rod & Bar Hot Finished 60-85 15-45 55-35 45-80
Rod & Bar Cold Drawn/Annealed or Hot-Finished/Annealed 55-75 15-30 55-40 45-70
Plate Hot-Rolled/Annealed 55-80 15-40 60-40 45-75
Sheet Annealed 55-75 15-30 55-40 70 max
Tube & Pipe Seamless Annealed 55-75 12-30 60-40 70 max

Material No. 2.4068
EN symbol (short) LC-Ni99
AISI/SAE
UNS N 02201
AFNOR
BS NA 12
alloy alloy 201
Registered work’s label
Standards VdTÜV 345

Material 2.4068 (alloy 201) – pure nickel – is chiefly used in the chemical industry. Our product range in 2.4068 (alloy 201) are tubes and pipes, fittings and flanges, accessories

Special characteristics
Temperature range Density kg/dm³ Hardness (HB)
for pressure bombs up to 600°C
for caustic soda evaporation up to 450°C
8,9  
Welding filler

Source: China Nickel Alloys Pipes Manufacturer – Yaang Pipe Industry Co., Limited (www.ugsteelmill.com)

(Yaang Pipe Industry is a leading manufacturer and supplier of nickel alloy and stainless steel products, including Super Duplex Stainless Steel Flanges, Stainless Steel Flanges, Stainless Steel Pipe Fittings, Stainless Steel Pipe. Yaang products are widely used in Shipbuilding, Nuclear power, Marine engineering, Petroleum, Chemical, Mining, Sewage treatment, Natural gas and Pressure vessels and other industries.)

If you want to have more information about the article or you want to share your opinion with us, contact us at sales@ugsteelmill.com

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  • Tips for selecting expansion joints

  • What is the difference between a steel pipe and a steel tube

  • Engineering Specification for Pressure Test of Piping System

  • How to choose a valve and valve end connection type

  • How to test pipe fitting

  • Manufacturing process of cold rolled steel pipe

  • Development trend of high pressure pipe fittings

  • How to get high quality flanges

  • How to get high quality pipe fittings

  • How to get high quality bellow expansion joints

  • How to get high quality alloy steel pipes

References:

  1. https://www.metallicsteel.com/product-material.html
  2. https://www.yaang.com/nickel-alloys-pipes-and-tubes-by-yaangcom.html

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