A Brief Overview of Pipe Fittings
Pipe fittings are the objects that holds the whole piping system together. This is because they make the pipes usable and help route the water to where it needs to go. When a bathroom remodel is done, these carbon steel pipe fittings may also need to be worked with in order to make sure they are doing what they need to be doing. If they are not there, then the whole thing will not work at all.
Pipe fittings are widely used in plumbing systems to join tubing sections and straight pipes to adapt to varied shapes and sizes. Sometimes, they may also be used to regulate or measure fluid flow. While plumbing is more often used for facilitating conveyance of gas, liquid or water in domestic environments, Pipe fitting is more related to high performance conveyance of liquids in special applications.
Pipe fitting materials
There is an entire gamut of materials used for manufacturing Pipe fittings. The one that you choose depends on the purpose of your fitting. Some of the most commonly used materials used for manufacturing Pipe fitting include:
- Carbon steel
- Stainless steel
- Low temperature service carbon steel
- Malleable iron
- lloy steel
- Non-metallic materials, such as tempered glass, PVC, ABS, GRE, HDPE etc.
- Non-ferrous metals, such as cupro-nickel, incoloy, inconel etc.
Usually, the body of pipe fitting is same as the material of pipe to be connected, such as steel, copper, PVC, CPVC, ABS etc. Therefore, any material that you choose should be compatible with the rest of the entire system, the fluid to be transported, and the pressure and temperature both inside and out. Earthquake resistance, fire hazards, and other such factors can also affect the selection of your pipe fitting materials.
Types of pipe fittings
There are different parameters to be considered before purchasing and that is the size of the pipe fittings in diameter, thickness of the wall to be according to the pressure in the pipes, materials, shape and many others.
Steel elbow is used to be installed between two lengths of pipe or tube allowing a change of direction,usually these carbon steel elbows distinguished by connection ends.
Long Radius (LR) Elbow is also called LR elbow – means the radius is 1.5 times the pipe diameter
Short Radius (SR) Elbow is also called SR elbow, – means the radius is 1.0 times the pipe diameter
Pipe bend can be made of variety materials,like carbon steel,alloy steel,stainless steel,low temperature steel or high performance steel,etc.
It advantage is can matach long distance transition requirements,so it is commonly that bends dimension according to customer design. usually,the bends consist of 3D,5D,7D even 12D series.
We can provide seamless tube tees and welding tube tees, which can also be divided into straight tees and reducing tees.Usually, the pipe tees have the same inlet and oulet sizes.
Reducing tee is a type of pipe fitting in which the branch port size is smaller than the ports of the run.
COMMON TYPES OF PIPE TEE
|Nominal Pipe Size||
The dimensions are in millimeters
Source : ASME B16.9 – 2007
A pipe cross is a kind of pipe fitting. It is used in the place where four pipes meet together. The pipe cross may have one inlet and three outlets, or there inlets and one outlet. The diameter of the outlet and inlet can be the same and can also be different. That is to say, straight cross and reducing cross are both availabe.
TYPES OF PIPE CROSS, CORSS FITTINGS
A cross fitting allows four direction transition in pipeline fields. Let us know more about pipe crosss under the following heads:
The reducing cross also is called unequal pipe cross , it is the pipe cross which the four branch ends are not in the same diameters.
The equal cross is one kind of the pipe cross, just like a equal tee, the equal cross means all the 4 ends of the cross are in same diameter.
Saddle previously is the ventilation ducts ‘crotch tee’, its shaped like pants, there Equal and unequal diameter, the formal name is “tube tapered pants tee.” There is no standard size, to be based on three tube spacing center line of the front and graphic design draw graphics, Lofting produced, lofting a certain degree of difficulty.Sheet metal is engaging, steel welding.
FEATURES OF PIPE CROSS:
- There are three female openings in a T shaped pipe cross.
- There are straight pipe crosss which have the same size openings.
- Reducing pipe crosss have one opening of different size and two openings of the same size.
- There are sanitary pipe crosss which are used in waste lines. These kind of pipe crosss have a curved branch which is designed for a clean out plug. They are used to prevent obstruction of waste.
- A cross pipe cross has four equal sized female openings.
- A wing pipe cross has lugs to fasten the fitting to a wall or stud.
- A compression pipe cross uses compression fittings on two or more ends.
- A test pipe cross has a threaded opening. This opening is used in conjunction with a threaded plug for a clean-out opening on a drain pipe.
PIPE CROSS & CROSSES SIZE
Pipe cross, LT, Lateral cross , RT, Reducing cross, cross fittings accord to ANSI, ISO, JIS and DIN Standards, Measures 1/2 to 56 Inches.
- Size range: 1/2 to 20 inches
- Types: Straight cross, Reducing cross, Y-type
- Pressure: SCH5 to SCH160
- Standard: ANSI B16.9/B16.28, MSS SP-43/SP-75
The fitting not only played a role in conection the cossing pipeline but also can control the volume by designed with different dimension of cross ends,sometimes we also adopt rib to reinforce the mechanical property when face hard woeking conditions.
- Carbon scrossl: ASTM/ASME A234 WPB-WPC
- Alloy scrossl: ASTM/ASME A234 WP 1-WP 12-WP 11-WP 22-WP 5-WP 91-WP 911
- Stainless scrossl: ASTM/ASME A403 WP 304-304L-304H-304LN-304N
- ASTM/ASME A403 WP 316-316L-316H-316LN-316N-316Ti
- ASTM/ASME A403 WP 321-321H ASTM/ASME A403 WP 347-347H
- Low temperature scrossl: ASTM/ASME A402 WPL 3-WPL 6
- High performance scrossl: ASTM/ASME A860 WPHY 42-46-52-60-65-70
BUYING TIPS OF PIPE CROSS:
- Type of pipe cross—whether welded or seamless
- Size and dimension
- Wall thickness
- Material of construction
- Durability and Economical
- High pressure and temperature resistance
- Corrosion resistance etc.
APPLICATIONS OF PIPE CROSS:
Pipe crosss are widely used in various commercial and industrial applications. Industrial applications include:
- Chemical processing
- Waste treatment, Marine
- Utilities/power generation
- Industrial equipment
- Gas compression and distribution industries
- Pipe crosss are also recommended for industrial plant fluid power systems.
End Cap, Carbon Steel cap, Stainless Steel Caps, ANSI, ISO, JIS and DIN Standards, Measures 1/2 to 56 Inches.
Based on different materials, pipe caps include carbon steel cap, stainless steel cap, and alloy steel cap etc.
Pipe Cap are used for connecting pipes of different diameters and find wide applications in various chemicals, construction industries, paper, cement & ship builders.
Pipe caps are widely well-known for the utmost output and outstanding results that it gives.
- Out diameter: 1/2″-60″ DN15-DN1500
- Wall Thickness: sch10-80s
- Pressure: SCH5 to SCH160v
- Max. wall thickness: 200mm
Pipe Cap manufactured using superior grade raw materials.
- Carbon steel end caps
- Stainless steel end caps
- ASTM/ASME A234 WPB
- ANSI B16.9 / 16.28
- Pipe caps according to DIN 2617
- End caps 18″ API 5L X46 – DIN28011
- End caps 22″ API 5L X46 – DIN28011
- End caps 48″ API 5L X46 – DIN28011
- Torispherical head according to DIN 28011
- Transparent oil, rust-proof black oil or hot galvanized.
- Special design available All the production process are made according to ISO9001:2000 strictly.
- Based on different materials, pipe caps include carbon steel cap, stainless steel cap, and alloy steel cap etc.
- Depending on their construction, pipe caps contain threaded cap, tapered cap and anti-roll cap etc.
Pipe caps can be in various shapes.
- Vessel heads: DISHED PLATES, HEADS, TORISPHERICAL HEADS, CAPS
- Large size end caps
- Socket Pipe cap
- Reasonable price with excellent quality
- Abundant stock and prompt delivery
- Rich supply and export experience, sincere service
- Reliable forwarder, 2-hour away from port.
Bending, squeezing, pressing, forging, machining and more
Pipe reducer are tube fittings that are widely used in a number of industries in order to providing greatest connection flexibility in connecting fractional tubes in various installations.
A reducer is the component in a pipeline that reduces the pipe size from a larger to a smaller bore (inner diameter).
The length of the reduction is usually equal to the average of the larger and smaller pipe diameters. There are two main types of reducer: concentric and eccentric reducers.
A reducer can be used either as nozzle or as diffuser depending on the mach number of the flow.
Concentric reducer is a kind of fitting that be used for reducing piping size.
Butt weld Eccentric Reducers are used for connecting pipes of different diameters and find wide applications in various chemicals, construction industries, paper, cement & ship builders.
Stub Ends are fittings used in place of welded flanges where rotating back up flanges are desired. They are also called Lap Joints and Vanstone Flared Laps. A rotating back up flange seats itself against the back surface of the Stub End.
The Stub End is available with us in different specifications, which find applications in a piping system to allow quick disconnection of the particular section involved.
Stub End is the fitting that be used in place of welded flanges where rotating back up flanges are desired.
They are also called Lap Joints and Vanstone Flared Laps.
STAINLESS STUB END
Stainless Steel Stub End such as Stainless Steel Stub Ends ASTM A403, Stainless Steel Stub End 304L, Stainless Steel Stub End 316L, Stainless Steel Stub End 317
CARBON STEEL STUB END
Our high quality stub ends (Butt weld fittings ) are tested and verified for durability, accuracy and precision.
LAP JOINT STUB END
The Lap joint stub end is the fittings that are used in place of welded flanges when the support of rotating back up flanges is required.
MANUFACTURING STANDARDS OF STUB END:
- ASTM ASME A/SA 403
- MSS SP43 & SP75 ANSI B16. 9
- ANSI B16. 28 ASTM A815 ASTM B363 B366
- DIN2605 DIN2615 DIN2616 DIN2617
- Grades: ASME / ASTM SA / A234
- Stainless Steel,316/316L Stainless Steel, 304/304L Stainless Steel and Chrome-moly
- Carbon steel
- Thicknesses are based on ASME B16.48 specifications or the products can be manufactured to customer specifications.
- Standard surface finish is 125-250 RMS serrated finish.
- Other finishes available upon request.
- c/w a standard shop primer on carbon steel products for rust inhibitor purposes.
- Size: Available in all sizes and thickness
Petroleum, Chemical, Power, Gas, Metallurgy, Ship-building, Construction, ect.
Using stub ends allows sections of the line to be opened for cleaning, inspection, or quick replacement etc, without the need to re-weld.
- Grades: ASME / ASTM SA / A234
- Material: Stainless Steel
- Size: Available in all sizes and thickness
Pipe Coupling is used for fluid conduits in which each end portion of two tubes to be connected is provided with a swaged-on adapter carrying the necessary means to connect or disconnect the tubes without disturbing the swaged-on adapter.
Our range of coupling fittings are available in aluminium, steel and bronze.
Pipe couplings are highly demanded in the pipe fitting market. Pipe couplings are fittings that help to extend or terminate pipe runs. These fittings are also used to change pipe size. Couplings extend a run by joining two lengths of pipe. They are known as reduced coupling if they are used to connect pipes of different sizes. Couplings are also known as repair couplings. These couplings are without stops or ridges and they can be fixed anywhere along the pipe length for preventing leak of any kind.
Material: ASTM A105, F304, F316, F304L, F316L, A182, F11, F22, and F91
Pressure: 2000LBS, 3000LBS, 6000LBS, 9000LBS
Size: from 1/4 to 4 inches
Standard: ANSI B16.9/B16.28 and MSS SP-43/SP-75
Connection ends: butt welded, threaded
Thread types: NU, EU, STC, LTC and BTC
Surface treatment:Shot blasted, rust-proof black oil
Now that you know the different kinds of Pipe fittings, find a reputable manufacturer or supplier in your locality, and ensure the efficiency of your piping system.
www.ugsteelmill.com manufacture and supply the Steel pipe fittings according to standard dimensions, we also can supply the steel pipe fittings as per clients requirements.
How are pipe fittings measured?
Pipe fittings are measured by their diameter, wall thickness (known as “schedule”), and shape or configuration. (Fittings are also defined by their material grade and whether they are welded or seamless.)
Diameter refers to outside diameter of a pipe or fitting.
The North American standard is known as Nominal Pipe Size (NPS). The International Standard is known as Diameter Nominal (DN). Pipes and fittings are actually made in similar sizes around the world: they are just labeled differently.
From ½ in to 12 inch “Nominal Pipe Size”, outside diameters are slightly larger than indicated size; inside diameters get smaller as schedules grow.
From 14 in and larger “Nominal Pipe Size”, outside diameters are exactly as indicated size; inside diameters get smaller as schedules grow.
As with other North American standards (inch, foot, yard, mile, …), many pipe standards (diameters up to 12 inch and wall thickness) are based on historical precedents (a toolmaker’s dies during US Civil War) rather than a “scientific” method.
The schedule numbers are used by the ANSI (American National Standards Institute) to denote wall thickness. The schedule numbers encompass all pipe dimensions beginning at NPS 1/8” up NPS 36”. Note that this configuration is only for fittings that match with a particular ANSI schedule number.
Nominal Pipe Size (NPS) is a North American set of standard sizes for pipes used for high or low pressures and temperatures.
Schedule, often shortened as sch, is a North American standard that refers to wall thickness of a pipe or pipe fitting. Higher schedules mean thicker walls that can resist higher pressures.
Pipe standards define these wall thicknesses: SCH 5, 5S, 10, 10S, 20, 30, 40, 40S, 60, 80, 80S, 100, 120, 140, 160, STD, XS and XXS. (S following a number is for stainless steel. Sizes without an S are for carbon steel.)
Higher schedules are heavier, require more material and are therefore more costly to make and install.
What does “schedule” mean for pipe fittings?
Schedule, often shortened as SCH, is a North American standard that refers to wall thickness of a pipe or pipe fitting.
What is schedule 40, SCH80?
Higher schedules mean thicker walls that can resist higher pressures.
Pipe standards define these wall thicknesses: SCH 5, 5S, 10, 10S, 20, 30, 40, 40S, 60, 80, 80S, 100, 120, 140, 160, STD, XS and XXS.
(S following a number is for stainless steel. Sizes without an S are for carbon steel.)
Higher schedules are heavier, require more material and are therefore more costly to make and install.
Why are fittings sometimes thicker and heavier than pipes to which they are connected?
Fittings are sometimes thicker than their connecting pipes to meet performance requirements or due to manufacturing reasons.
Due to fitting geometry, stress is very different when compared to a pipe. Using extra material is often necessary to compensate for such additional stress, especially for tees and tight curve elbows.
Fitting manufacturers may not always stock plates or pipes for all metal grades or sizes. When responding to an order, manufacturers always use the right metal or alloy, but sometimes made with next-higher available plate or pipe size while still respecting specified inside diameters.
Applications and markets of pipe fittings
Fittings are used wherever liquids, gases, chemicals and other fluids are created, processed, transported, or used.
Range of industries is very wide, as shown below:
- Energy related.
- Oil and gas industries, including upstream (exploration and production), midstream (transportation by ships, pipeline, rail, trucks; storage and wholesale) and downstream (refining into fuels or chemicals; marketing and distribution). Power plants using fossil or nuclear fuels. Geothermal energy for harnessing heat from the earth.
- Food and beverage production.
- From basic ingredients to elaborate desserts. From milk, to juices and other beverages. Cold chain to keep produce fresh, drinks and frozen foods at a set temperature. Desalination plants to transform seawater into drinking water for arid areas and various tropical islands.
- Pharmaceuticals and biotech production.
- Medicines and vaccines that treat illnesses and help restore bodies and minds to their top conditions.
- Semiconductor manufacturing:
- Microchips that go into all electronics, including smartphones, tablets, computers, television sets, telecom networks …
- Pulp and paper production.
- Newsprint, glossy paper, cardboard boxes, books, writing paper
Production of construction materials and plastics. From roofing materials, to glassmaking for windows, to copper wiring for transporting electricity, and various plastics throughout houses and office buildings.
Testing for pipe fittings
The most common non distructive tests (NDT) for pipe fittings:
- Positive material identification (PMI): identification of the chemical composition of the metal used to manufacture the fitting. Uses PMI sensors, including X-ray fluorescence or optical emission spectrometry. This test is frequently executed for high value materials, from duplex steel onwards.
- Penetrating liquids: this is a low-cost test to detect cracks or abnormal porosity on the surface of the fittings, and is executed by applying a special liquid to its surface.
- Ferrite content: this test aims to measure the ferrite content for duplex, super duplex and stainless steel materials to make sure the metal is able to achieve the yield strength, fracture toughness and corrosion resistance it is meant to reach. Ferrite content is measured in weld seams by magnetic induction.
- Hydrostatic test / hydro testing (pressure testing): the fitting gets filled with a test liquid (example water) and a pressure is applied to check if any pressure loss occurs (which would indicate manufacturing defects)
- Magnetic particles: by means of a magnetic field, possible surface discontinuities or weakness can be identified
- Macrography: 2 / 3 D pictures of items visible to naked eye.
- Micrography: pictures at the microscope to see the microgranular structure of the metal and other details not visible at the naked eye
- Pneumatic pressure: the fitting gets filled with pressurized air; measurements are taken to see if there is pressure loss due to any defects.
- Radiography: X-rays / gamma rays to detect imperfections leading to possible quality defects
- Out of the above tests, the pressure testing is one of the most commonly specified, especially for mission critical fittings in the pipeline.
Pipe fittings are produced in a vast range of styles with manufacturers offering tees, elbows, unions, male connectors, female connectors and many others. Reducers allow the installers to change from one tube size to another, even from metric to imperial. Unlike the flared fitting, there is no set standard to manufacture the double ferrule fittings to. However, certain unwritten rules apply and all producers use the same method of distinguishing between metric and imperial fittings. A step, or shoulder, is machined on to the metric fitting body below the hexagon portion, and on the front end of the nut. This is also clearly seen in all the manufacturers’ literature.
Source: China Pipe Fittings Manufacturer – Yaang pipe fitting Industry Co., Limited (www.ugsteelmill.com)
(Yaang Pipe Industry is a leading manufacturer and supplier of nickel alloy and stainless steel products, including Super Duplex Stainless Steel Flanges, Stainless Steel Flanges, Stainless Steel Pipe Fittings, Stainless Steel Pipe. Yaang products are widely used in Shipbuilding, Nuclear power, Marine engineering, Petroleum, Chemical, Mining, Sewage treatment, Natural gas and Pressure vessels and other industries.)
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